Monkeys with Tiny Brain Sensors controlled mechanical arm with their thoughts

Monkeys with Tiny Brain Sensors controlled mechanical arm with their thoughts

Post by NewsToBeRea » Sat, 07 Jun 2008 05:11:54


http://SportToday.org/

Monkeys Think, Moving Artificial Arm as Own

By BENEDICT CAREY
Published: May 29, 2008

Two monkeys with tiny sensors in their brains have learned to control
a mechanical arm with just their thoughts, using it to reach for and
grab food and even to adjust for the size and stickiness of morsels
when necessary, scientists reported on Wednesday.

The report, released online by the journal Nature, is the most
striking demonstration to date of brain-machine interface technology.
Scientists expect that technology will eventually allow people with
spinal cord injuries and other paralyzing conditions to gain more
control over their lives.

The findings suggest that brain-controlled prosthetics, while not
practical, are at least technically within reach.

In previous studies, researchers showed that humans who had been
paralyzed for years could learn to control a cursor on a computer
screen with their brain waves and that nonhuman primates could use
their thoughts to move a mechanical arm, a robotic hand or a robot on
a treadmill.

The new experiment goes a step further. In it, the monkeys brains
seem to have adopted the mechanical appendage as their own, refining
its movement as it interacted with real objects in real time. The
monkeys had their own arms gently restrained while they learned to use
the added one.

Experts not involved with the study said the findings were likely to
accelerate interest in human testing, especially given the need to
treat head and spinal injuries in veterans returning from Iraq and
Afghanistan.

This study really pulls together all the pieces from earlier work and
provides a clear demonstration of whats possible, said Dr. William
Heetderks , director of the extramural science program at the National
Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. Dr. John P.
Donoghue, director of the Institute of Brain Science at Brown
University, said the new report was important because its the most
comprehensive study showing how an animal interacts with complex
objects, using only brain activity.

The researchers, from the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon
University, used monkeys partly because of their anatomical
similarities to humans and partly because they are quick learners.

In the experiment, two macaques first used a joystick to gain a feel
for the arm, which had shoulder joints, an elbow and a grasping claw
with two mechanical fingers.

Then, just beneath the monkeys skulls, the scientists implanted a
grid about the size of a large freckle. It sat on the motor cortex,
over a patch of cells known to signal arm and hand movements. The grid
held 100 tiny electrodes, each connecting to a single neuron, its
wires running out of the brain and to a computer.

The computer was programmed to analyze the collective firing of these
100 motor neurons, translate that sum into an electronic command and
send it instantaneously to the arm, which was mounted flush with the
left shoulder.

The scientists used the computer to help the monkeys move the arm at
first, essentially teaching them with biofeedback.

After several days, the monkeys needed no help. They sat stationary in
a chair, repeatedly manipulating the arm with their brain to reach out
and grab grapes, marshmallows and other nuggets dangled in front of
them. The snacks reached the mouths about two-thirds of the time an
impressive rate, compared with earlier work.

The monkeys learned to hold the grip open on approaching the food,
close it just enough to hold the food and gradually loosen the grip
when feeding.

On several occasions, a monkey kept its claw open on the way back,
with the food stuck to one finger. At other times, a monkey moved the
arm to*** the fingers clean or to push a bit of food into its mouth
while ignoring a newly presented morsel.

The animals were apparently freelancing, discovering new uses for the
arm, showing displays of embodiment that would never be seen in a
virtual environment, the researchers wrote.

In the real world, things dont work as expected, said the senior
author of the paper, Dr. Andrew Schwartz, a professor of neurobiology
at the University of Pittsburgh. The marshmallow sticks to your hand
or the food slips, and you cant program a computer to anticipate all
of that.

But the monkeys brains adjusted. They were***ing the marshmallow
off the prosthetic gripper, pushing food into their mouth, as if it
were their own hand.

The co-authors were Meel Velliste, Sagi Perel, M. Chance Spalding and
Andrew Whitford.

Scientists have to clear several hurdles before this technology
becomes practical, experts said. Implantable electrode grids do not
generally last more than a period of months, for reasons that remain
unclear.

The equipment to read and transmit the signal can be cumbersome and in
need of continual monitoring and recalibrating. And no one has yet
demonstrated a workable wireless system that would eliminate the need
for connections through the scalp.

Yet Dr. Schwartzs team, Dr. Donoghues group and others are working
on all of the problems, and the two macaques rapid learning curve in
taking ownership of a foreign limb gives scientists confidence that
the main obstacles are technical and, thus, negotiable.

In an editorial accompanying the Nature study, Dr. John F. Kalaska, a
neuroscientist at the University of Montreal, argued that after such
bugs had been worked out, scientists might even discover areas of the
cortex that allow more intimate, subtle control of prosthetic devices.
Such systems, Dr. Kalaska wrote, would allow patients with severe
motor deficits to interact and communicate with the world not only by
the moment-to-moment control of the motion of robotic devices, but
also in a more natural and intuitive manner that reflects their
overall goals, needs and preferences.

 
 
 

Monkeys with Tiny Brain Sensors controlled mechanical arm with their thoughts

Post by Husband of All FBI n NSA Agent » Sat, 07 Jun 2008 12:01:36


Quote:

> http://SportToday.org/

> Monkeys Think, Moving Artificial Arm as Own

> By BENEDICT CAREY
> Published: May 29, 2008

> Two monkeys with tiny sensors in their brains have learned to control
> a mechanical arm with just their thoughts, using it to reach for and
> grab food and even to adjust for the size and stickiness of morsels
> when necessary, scientists reported on Wednesday.

> The report, released online by the journal Nature, is the most
> striking demonstration to date of brain-machine interface technology.
> Scientists expect that technology will eventually allow people with
> spinal cord injuries and other paralyzing conditions to gain more
> control over their lives.

> The findings suggest that brain-controlled prosthetics, while not
> practical, are at least technically within reach.

> In previous studies, researchers showed that humans who had been
> paralyzed for years could learn to control a cursor on a computer
> screen with their brain waves and that nonhuman primates could use
> their thoughts to move a mechanical arm, a robotic hand or a robot on
> a treadmill.

> The new experiment goes a step further. In it, the monkeys' brains
> seem to have adopted the mechanical appendage as their own, refining
> its movement as it interacted with real objects in real time. The
> monkeys had their own arms gently restrained while they learned to use
> the added one.

> Experts not involved with the study said the findings were likely to
> accelerate interest in human testing, especially given the need to
> treat head and spinal injuries in veterans returning from Iraq and
> Afghanistan.

> "This study really pulls together all the pieces from earlier work and
> provides a clear demonstration of what's possible," said Dr. William
> Heetderks , director of the extramural science program at the National
> Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. Dr. John P.
> Donoghue, director of the Institute of Brain Science at Brown
> University, said the new report was "important because it's the most
> comprehensive study showing how an animal interacts with complex
> objects, using only brain activity."

> The researchers, from the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon
> University, used monkeys partly because of their anatomical
> similarities to humans and partly because they are quick learners.

> In the experiment, two macaques first used a joystick to gain a feel
> for the arm, which had shoulder joints, an elbow and a grasping claw
> with two mechanical fingers.

> Then, just beneath the monkeys' skulls, the scientists implanted a
> grid about the size of a large freckle. It sat on the motor cortex,
> over a patch of cells known to signal arm and hand movements. The grid
> held 100 tiny electrodes, each connecting to a single neuron, its
> wires running out of the brain and to a computer.

> The computer was programmed to analyze the collective firing of these
> 100 motor neurons, translate that sum into an electronic command and
> send it instantaneously to the arm, which was mounted flush with the
> left shoulder.

> The scientists used the computer to help the monkeys move the arm at
> first, essentially teaching them with biofeedback.

> After several days, the monkeys needed no help. They sat stationary in
> a chair, repeatedly manipulating the arm with their brain to reach out
> and grab grapes, marshmallows and other nuggets dangled in front of
> them. The snacks reached the mouths about two-thirds of the time - an
> impressive rate, compared with earlier work.

> The monkeys learned to hold the grip open on approaching the food,
> close it just enough to hold the food and gradually loosen the grip
> when feeding.

> On several occasions, a monkey kept its claw open on the way back,
> with the food stuck to one finger. At other times, a monkey moved the
> arm to*** the fingers clean or to push a bit of food into its mouth
> while ignoring a newly presented morsel.

> The animals were apparently freelancing, discovering new uses for the
> arm, showing "displays of embodiment that would never be seen in a
> virtual environment," the researchers wrote.

> "In the real world, things don't work as expected," said the senior
> author of the paper, Dr. Andrew Schwartz, a professor of neurobiology
> at the University of Pittsburgh. "The marshmallow sticks to your hand
> or the food slips, and you can't program a computer to anticipate all
> of that.

> "But the monkeys' brains adjusted. They were***ing the marshmallow
> off the prosthetic gripper, pushing food into their mouth, as if it
> were their own hand."

> The co-authors were Meel Velliste, Sagi Perel, M. Chance Spalding and
> Andrew Whitford.

> Scientists have to clear several hurdles before this technology
> becomes practical, experts said. Implantable electrode grids do not
> generally last more than a period of months, for reasons that remain
> unclear.

> The equipment to read and transmit the signal can be cumbersome and in
> need of continual monitoring and recalibrating. And no one has yet
> demonstrated a workable wireless system that would eliminate the need
> for connections through the scalp.

> Yet Dr. Schwartz's team, Dr. Donoghue's group and others are working
> on all of the problems, and the two macaques' rapid learning curve in
> taking ownership of a foreign limb gives scientists confidence that
> the main obstacles are technical and, thus, negotiable.

> In an editorial accompanying the Nature study, Dr. John F. Kalaska, a
> neuroscientist at the University of Montreal, argued that after such
> bugs had been worked out, scientists might even discover areas of the
> cortex that allow more intimate, subtle control of prosthetic devices.
> Such systems, Dr. Kalaska wrote, "would allow patients with severe
> motor deficits to interact and communicate with the world not only by
> the moment-to-moment control of the motion of robotic devices, but
> also in a more natural and intuitive manner that reflects their
> overall goals, needs and preferences."

Technology available to the US Government is 30 years advanced than the
technology
available to the general public.

What these scientists achieved with embedding tiny sensors in monkeys brains
is
"childs play" to the US Government psychopaths at FBI, CIA and NSA.

Read and educate yourself about the futuristic, amazing, unbelievable
technologies
developed secretly by the US Government FBI, CIA and NSA PSYCHOPATHS.

Rodney Ulyate, FBI, NSA PSYCHOPATHS, 888-888-8888 and TORTURE PROOF
http://SportToday.org/

PAIN BOTS and PSYCHO-ELECTRONIC WEAPONS REMOTELY OPERATED by FBI n NSA
PSYCHOPATHS
http://SportToday.org/

Tapes are USELESS for you FBI n NSA PSYCHOPATHS since its MY DEFIANCE n
TELLING YOU TO GO *** YOURSELVES
http://SportToday.org/

FBI n NSA PSYCHOPATHS can TRACK ANYONE with their RNM TECHNOLOGY and TORTURE
THEM ANYWHERE ON EARTH
http://SportToday.org/

 
 
 

Monkeys with Tiny Brain Sensors controlled mechanical arm with their thoughts

Post by Pat » Sat, 07 Jun 2008 22:49:52

"Husband of All FBI n NSA Agents"   why are you posting this off topic stuff
to the swimming newsgroup? Please trim your crossposting!