In a previous post, Eric Simon posted the amendments to Ultimate.
I've taken those and combined them with my cleaned up copy of the
rules and figured I'd re-post them.
> Licata, Scott Gurst, Troy Frever, and Juha Jalovaara for compiling
> the amendments and changes.
> good spirit.
So, without further adieu, here are the 9th Ed., cleaned-up, politically
correct, amended rules of Ultimate.
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- Begin Ultimate Rules -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Date: Tue, 11 Jun 91 11:11:57 +0300
Subject: 9th edition rules
WARNING - This is not an 'electronic' edition of the rules, but
rather the result of somebody's secretary typing in the rules. In
other words, a real "Ninth Edition" was given to a non-Ultimate
playing secretary, who then typed it in. There are probably typos
in it. I would appreciate it if you could make me aware of any
typos. My goal is to make appropriate changes, and u/l a 'clean
copy' some time next week. In the meantime, do not pass these
rules around without this warning - Thank you - Eric Simon,
ULTIMATE PLAYERS ASSOCIATION
THE RULES OF ULTIMATE
The purpose of the rules of Ultimate is to provide a guideline which
describes the way the game is played. It assumed that no Ultimate
player will intentionally violate the rules; thus there are no harsh
penalties for inadvertent infractions, but rather a method for
resuming play in a manner which simulates what would most likely have
occurred had there been no infraction.
In Ultimate, an intentional foul would be considered cheating and a
gross offense against the spirit of sportsmanship. Often a player is
in a position where it is clearly to the player's advantage to foul or
commit some violation, but that player is morally bound to abide by
the rules. The integrity of Ultimate depends on each player's
responsibility to uphold the spirit of the game, and this
responsibility should not be taken lightly.
Ultimate is a non-contact sport played by two seven player teams. The
object of the game is to score goals. The disc may only be moved by
passing as the thrower is not allowed to take any steps. Any time a
pass is incomplete, intercepted, knocked-down, or contacts an
out-of-bounds area, a turnover occurs, resulting in an immediate
change of possession of the disc. A goal is scored when a player
successfully passes the disc to a teammate in the endzone which that
team is attacking.
Spirit of the Game
Ultimate has traditionally relied upon a spirit of sportsmanship which
places the responsibility for fair play on the player. Highly
competitive play is encouraged, but never at the expense of the bond
of mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed upon rules
of the game, or the basic joy of play. Protection of these vital
elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the Ultimate field.
Such actions as taunting of opposing players, dangerous aggression,
intentional fouling, or other "win-at-all-costs" behavior are
contrary to the spirit of the game and must be avoided by all players.
A game may be played under any variations of the rules agreed upon by
the captains of the two teams. In tournament play, such variations
are subject to the approval of the tournament director. Such things
as length of game, dimensions of the field, and stalling count can
easily be altered to suit the level of play.
II. CLARIFYING STATEMENTS
A "player" is any of the four*** (14) persons who are actually
participating in the game at any one time.
To "put the disc into play" means that the thrower establishes a
pivot foot and is ready to throw.
"Where the disc stops" refers to the location where the disc is
caught, comes to rest naturally, or where it is stopped from
rolling or sliding.
2. There are no scrimmage lines or off-sides (except on throw-offs)
3. The disc may be passed in any direction.
4. The rolling or sliding disc may be stopped by any player, but it
may not be purposefully advanced in any direction. Possession is
gained where the disc stops.
5. No defensive player may ever pick up the disc.
III. FIELD OF PLAY
1. The field of play is a rectangular area with dimensions as shown
on the accompanying diagram.
2. The playing field may have any surface (although well trimmed
grass is suggested) which is essentially flat, free of
obstructions and holes, and affords reasonable player safety.
3. The playing field proper is the playing field excluding the
4. The goal lines are the lines which separate the playing field
proper from the endzones and are part of the playing field proper.
5. The perimeter lines (sidelines and endlines) are not part of the
6. The corners of the playing field proper and the endzones are
marked by cones made of a brightly colored, flexible material.
7. An additional restraining line is established five (5) meters away
from the entire field to ensure that the sidelines remain clear
8. All lines are marked with a non-caustic material and are between
two and four inches wide (2"-4").
1. Any flying disc may be used as long as it is acceptable to both
team captains. If the captains cannot agree, the currently
accepted disc of the Ultimate Players Association (Wham-O 165g)
shall be used.
2. Individual players may wear any soft protective clothing as long
as it does not endanger the safety of any other player.
3. Cleats which have any metal exposed are not allowed.
4. Each player must wear a uniform or other clothing that
distinguishes that player from the players on the other team.
V. LENGTH OF GAME
A. Each half lasts for twenty-four (24) minutes of stopped time.
B. Each overtime period lasts for five (5) minutes of stopped
C. The clock starts when:
1. An offensive player gains possession of a throw-off and
establishes a pivot foot;
2. The thrower receives the disc after a check;
3. The thrower puts the disc into play after it has been out
D. The clock stops:
1. After a goal;
2. At the end of a period of play;
3. For time-outs;
4. For injuries;
5. For fouls and violations;
6. When the disc contacts an out-of-bounds area.
A. A goal is worth one (1) point.
B. A game to points lasts until one team scores twenty-one (21)
goals with a margin of victory of at least two(2) goals.
C. A game with a score of twenty-to-twenty (20-20) goes into
overtime, and play continues until a two-goal margin is
achieved or one team scores twenty-five (25) goals.
D. Halftime occurs when one team reaches eleven (11) goals.
3. Halftime lasts for ten (10) minutes.
4. At the end of the game, the team with the most goals is declared
A. Each team is permitted three (3) time-outs per half, and
one(1) per overtime.
B. Each time-out lasts up to two (2) minutes.
C. The player calling the time-out must form a "T" with his/her
hands and call "time-out" loudly.
D. A time-out may be called by either team after a goal and
before the ensuing accepted throw-off.
E. During play, only the person with possession of the disc can
call a time-out.
F. When play resumes after a time-out:
1. The player who had possession puts the disc into play.
2. The disc is put into play at the location where the disc
was when the time-out was called.
3. Play is resumed through the use of a check and all other
players may set up in any position on the field.
2. INJURY TIME-OUT
A. Injury time-out can be called by any member of the injured
player's team. The time-out call is in effect at the time of
the injury. In other words, the call is retroactive to the
time that the injury occurred.
B. Injury time-out results in a team time-out if the injured
player does not leave the game. A "spirit of the game"
exception is made when the injury is caused by an opposing
C. When play resumes after an injury time-out:
1. The player who had possession of the disc when the injury
occurred puts the disc into play. If that player leaves
the field due to injury, the replacing player
puts the disc into play.
2. If the disc was in the air at the time of the
injury, play continues until possession is gained and
that player puts the disc into play.
3. The disc is put into play at the location where the disc
was when the injury occurred.
4. The play is resumed through the use of a check and all
players must assume their respective positions on
the field when the time-out was called.
1. Substitutions can be made only:
A. After a goal and before the ensuing accepted throw-off.
B. Before the beginning of a period of play;
C. To replace an injured player(s).
2. If a team replaces an injured player(s), the opposing team has the
option of substituting a like number of, or fewer players.
3. Substitutions other than injury substitutions cannot be made
during a time-out taken during play.
VIII. STARTING AND RESTARTING PLAY
1. Before a game starts, each team designates one captain to
represent that team in disagreements and arbitration.
2. Start of periods of play:
A. The captains of the two teams each flip a disc. The captain
of one team calls same or different while the discs are in the
air. The team winning the flip has the choice of:
1. Receiving the initial throw-off; or
2. Selecting which goal they wish to defend initially.
B. The team losing the flip is given the remaining choice.
C. The second half begins with an automatic reversal of the first
choice of the options (see 2-A)
D. In a game to time, if overtime periods are needed, the disc
flipping procedure is repeated for the first overtime period.
Each subsequent overtime period begins with an automatic
reversal of the first choice of the options.
3. Throw Off
A. Play starts at the beginning of each period of play and after
each goal with a throw-off.
B. Each time a goal is scored, the teams switch the direction of
their attack and the team which scored throws off.
C. Positioning prior to the throw-off.
1. The players on the throwing team are free to move anywhere
in their defending endzone, but may not cross the goal
line until the disc is released.
2. The players on the receiving team must stand with one foot
on their defending goal line without changing position
relative to one another.
D. The throw-off may be made only after the thrower and a player
on the receiving team raise a hand to signal that team's
readiness to begin play.
E. The throw-off consists of one player on the throwing team
throwing the disc toward the opposite goal line to begin play.
F. As soon as the disc is released, all players may move in any
G. No player on the throwing team may touch the throw-off in the
air before it is touched by a member of the receiving team.
H. If a member of the receiving team catches the throw-off on the
playing field proper, that player must put the disc into play
from the spot.
I. If a member of the receiving team touches the disc during
flight of the throw-off (whether in or out of bounds) and the
receiving team fails to catch it, the team which threw-off
gains possession of the disc where it stops.
J. If the receiving team allows the throw-off to fall untouched
to the ground, and the disc initially lands in bounds, the
receiving team gains possession of the disc where it stops.
K. If the throw-off lands out of bounds, the receiving team,
before touching the disc, makes a choice of:
1. Putting the disc into play at the point where it crossed
the goal line.
2. Requesting a re-throw. To request a re-throw, any member
of the receiving team must fully extend one hand above the
head and call "Over." Once this re-throw signal is given,
that throw-off can no longer be put into play.
3. Invoking the Middle Rule. To invoke the "middle rule,"
the member of the receiving team who is going to receive
the throw-off shall fully extend one hand above his/her
head and call "middle". The player must let the disc hit
the ground. On a "middle rule" call, the offensive player
may use a "self check," meaning he/she picks up the disc
and the nearest defensive player says "in play." If the
nearest player does not immediately say "in play," the
offensive player may touch the disc to the ground and yell
"disc in play."
4. The Check
A. When play stops, the player who was in possession retains
B. All players must come to a stop as quickly as possible when
play is halted, and remain in their respective locations until
play is restarted.
C. The marker restarts play by handing the disc to the thrower.
1. Any area not on the playing field is out-of-bounds. The perimeter
lines themselves are out-of-bounds.
2. A disc is out-of-bounds when it first contacts an out-of-bounds
area or contacts anything out-of-bounds.
3. The disc may fly outside a perimeter line and return to the
playing field, and defensive players may go out-of-bounds in order
to make a play on the disc.
4. A player is out-of-bounds when s/he is contacting an out-of-bounds
area. When a player is in the air, his/her in or out-of-bounds is
determined by where the ground was last contacted by the player.
5. For a receiver to be considered in bounds after gaining possession
of the disc, the first point of contact with the ground must be
completely in-bounds. If any portion of the first point of
contact is out-of-bounds, the player is considered out-of-bounds.
6. Should the momentum of a player carry him/her out-of-bounds after
making a catch and landing in-bounds, the player is considered
in-bounds. The player carries the disc to the point where s/he
went out-of-bounds and puts the disc into play at that point.
7. To restart play after the disc has gone out-of-bounds, a member of
the team gaining possession of the disc must carry the disc to the
point of the playing field where the disc went out-of-bounds, and
put the disc into play at that point.
8. The thrower may pivot in- and out-of-bounds, providing that some
part of the pivot foot contacts the playing field.
9. If a pass does not come in bounds the opposing team gains
possession of the disc where it left the field of play only if the
defense did not contact the disc. If the defense contacted the
disc, the disc must be put into play at the point closest to the
playing field where the contact occurred.
1. If a team gains possession in the endzone which it is defending:
A. The player taking possession must make the immediate decision
1. Put the disc into play from that spot, or
2. Carry it directly to the closest point on the goal line
and put it into play from there. If this option is
chosen, the player taking possession commits the player to
put the disc into play at that point.
B. To fake or pause after gaining possession commits the player
to put the disc into play at that point.
2. If, as a result of a pass from a teammate, a player receives the
disc in the endzone which they are defending, that player does not
have a choice of advancing the disc to the goal line.
3. If a team gains possession in the endzone which it is attacking,
the player taking possession must carry the disc directly to the
closest point on the goal line and put the disc into play from
1. A goal is scored when an offensive player completes a pass to a
teammate in the endzone which his/her team is attacking.
2. In order for the receiver to be considered in the endzone after
gaining possession of the disc, his/her first point of contact
with the ground must be completely in the endzone.
3. A player cannot score by running into the endzone with the disc.
Should a receiver's momentum carry him/her into the endzone after
gaining possession, the receiver must carry the disc back to the
closest point on the goal line and put the disc into play from
4. A player must be completely in the endzone and acknowledge that
s/he has scored a goal. If that player plays the disc unknowingly
into a turnover, then no goal is awarded.
1. An incomplete, intercepted, knocked down, or out-of-bounds pass
results in a loss of possession.
2. The following actions result in a loss of possession and a check:
A. If the marker's count reaches the maximum number;
B. If the disc is handed from player to player;
C. If the thrower intentionally deflects a pass to him/herself
off another player;
D. If the thrower catches his/her own throw. However, if the
disc is touched by another player during its flight it is
considered a complete pass and is not a turnover.
XIII. THE THROWER
1. The thrower is the offensive player in possession of the disc, or
the player who has just released the disc.
2. If the disc is on the ground, whether in- or out-of-bounds, any
member of the team becoming offense may take possession of the
disc. Once an offensive player has picked up the disc, that
player is required to put the disc into play.
3. The thrower must establish a pivot foot and may not change that
pivot foot until the throw is released.
4. The thrower has the right to pivot in any direction. However,
once the marker has established a legal defensive position, the
thrower may not pivot into the marker.
5. If the disc is dropped by the thrower without defensive
interference, it is considered an incomplete pass.
6. The thrower may throw the disc in any way s/he wishes.
XIV. THE MARKER
1. Only one defensive player may guard the thrower at any one time;
that player is the marker.
2. The marker may not straddle (i.e., place his/her foot on either side
of) the pivot foot of the thrower.
3. There must be at least one disc's diameter between the upper
bodies of the thrower and the marker at all times. It is the
mutual responsibility of both players to respect each other's
position and not encroach into this area once it is established.
4. The marker cannot position his/her arms in such a manner as to
restrict the thrower from pivoting.
A. Once a marker has established a set guarding stance on the
thrower, s/he may initiate a count.
B. The count consists of the marker calling "Stalling" or
"Counting" and counting at one second intervals from one to
ten (1, 10) loudly enough for the thrower to hear.
C. If the thrower has not released the disc at the first
utterance of the word "ten" ("10"), a turnover and a check
D. If the defense decides to switch markers; and if the new
marker wishes to initiate a stalling count, s/he must start
again from "one" ("1").
E. In the event of a stall, the once marker, now offensive
player, does not have to take the disc after the check. The
once thrower, now marker, checks the disc to the new thrower,
if s/he does not want the disc, the marker "checks" the disc
by placing it on the ground and calling "in play."
XV. THE RECEIVER
1. The receiver is any offensive player either in the act of catching
the disc, or not in possession of the disc.
2. Bobbling to gain control of the disc is permitted, but purposeful,
controlled bobbling to oneself (i.e., tipping, delaying, guiding,
or brushing) in order to advance the disc is considered traveling
and is not allowed.
3. The receiver gains possession by demonstrating sustained contact
with a non-spinning disc.
4. After catching a pass, the receiver is only allowed the fewest
number of steps required to come to a stop and establish a pivot
5. If the receiver is running as s/he catches the disc, the receiver
may throw a pass before the third ground contact after catching
the disc without coming to a complete stop.
6. If the disc is caught simultaneously by offensive and defensive
players, the offense retains possession.
7. If a pass arrives in such a manner that it is unclear whether a
catch was made before the disc contacted the ground (grass is
considered part of the ground), the player(s) with the best
perspective makes the call (usually the receiver).
8. If it is ever unclear where a receiver was in- or out-of-bounds at
the point of making a catch, the player(s) with the best
perspective makes the call.
9. Force-Out Foul. If an airborne receiver catches the disc, and
is contacted by a defensive player before landing, and that contact
caused the receiver to land out-of-bounds instead of landing
in-bounds, the receiver must either call him/herself out-of-bounds,
or call a force-out foul on the defensive player. If this foul
occurs in the end zone and it is uncontested, a goal is awarded.
10. First ground contact determines possession. The ground can cause
an incomplete pass, resulting in a turnover.
1. Fouls are the result of physical contact between opposing players.
A foul can only be called by the player who has been fouled and
must be announced by calling out the word "Foul!" loudly
immediately after the foul has occurred.
2. The player initiating contact is guilty of a foul.
3. Throwing Fouls:
A. A throwing foul may be called when there is contact between
the thrower and the marker.
B. Contact occurring during the follow through (after the disc
has been released) is not sufficient grounds for a foul, but
should still be avoided whenever possible.
C. When a foul is committed by a thrower or the marker, play
stops and possession reverts back to the thrower after a
D. If the thrower is fouled in the act of throwing and the pass
is completed, the foul is automatically declined and play
continues without interruption.
E. If the marker is fouled in the act of throwing and the pass is
not completed, play continues without interruption.
4. Catching Fouls:
A. A catching foul may be called when there is contact between
opposing players in the process of attempting a catch,
interception, or knock down. A certain amount of incidental
contact during or immediately after the catching attempt is
often unavoidable and is not a foul.
B. If a player contacts an opponent before the disc arrives and
thereby interferes with that opponent's attempt to make a play
on the disc, that player has committed a foul.
C. If a player's attempt to make a play on the disc causes
significant impact with a legitimately positioned stationary
opponent, before or after the disc arrives, it is considered
"harmful endangerment" and is a foul.
D. Dangerous, aggressive behavior or reckless disregard for the
safety of fellow players is always a foul.
E. If a catching foul occurs and is uncontested, the player
fouled gains possession at the point of the infraction. If
the call is disputed, the disc goes back to the thrower. If
an uncontested foul (with the exception of a force-out foul
[XV-9]) occurs in the end zone, the player fouled gains
possession at the closest point on the goal line to the
1. A violation occurs when a player violates the rules in a manner
which does not result in physical contact. (e.g. illegal guarding
position by the marker, not establishing a pivot foot on the
sideline after carrying the disc in from out-of-bounds, etc.)
2. A violation may be called by any player who recognizes that a
violation has occurred. The player must immediately call
"violation" or the name of the specific violation loudly.
A. The thrower must keep all or part of the pivot foot in contact
with a single spot on the field. Should the thrower lose
contact with that spot, the thrower has traveled.
B. If the receiver obviously takes more steps than are required
to stop after catching a pass, that player has traveled.
C. If a receiver, after receiving a pass on the run, releases a
pass after the third ground contact and before coming to a
complete stop, that receiver has traveled.
A. No defensive player may touch the disc while it is in
possession of the thrower or receiver. If a defensive player
does so, the player in possession calls "Strip."
B. The player in possession then picks up the disc and play
continues unhalted from the point where s/he regained
C. If a count was in progress as the disc was stripped, the
count is halted, and when the player in possession regains
possession, the count restarts at zero (0).
D. A contested strip of the receiver is treated the same as a
contested foul; an uncontested strip in the end zone is a
A. Only one marker is permitted to guard the thrower.
B. No other defensive player may establish a position within
three(3) meters of the pivot foot of the thrower, unless s/he
is guarding another offensive player in that area.
C. Should the thrower recognize a double-team situation, s/he
first calls "Double-Team" as a warning. On the first
"Double-Team" call, the marker must subtract 2 from the stall
count. If "double-team" is called again within the same 10
seconds, play stops and is resumed after a check with the
count reset to zero (0).
1. It is the responsibility of all players to avoid contact in any
way possible. *** impact with legitimately positioned
opponents constitutes harmful endangerment, a foul, and must be
2. Every player (excluding the thrower) is entitled to occupy any
position on the field not occupied by any opposing player,
provided that s/he does not cause personal contact in taking such
A. In the event of a pick, the obstructed player must
immediately call "Pick" loudly; play stops and is resumed
after a check, unless the continuation rule [XIX-2] applies.
B. In the event of a pick, the obstructed player must immediately
call "Pick" loudly; play stops and is resumed after a check.
4. When the disc is in the air, players must play the disc, not the
5. The Principle of Verticality: All players have the right to the
space immediately above them. Thus, a player cannot prevent an
opponent from making an attempt on a pass by placing his/her arms
above an opponent. Should contact occur, the player restricting
the vertical area is responsible.
6. A player who jumped is entitled to land at the same spot without
hindrance by opponents. S/he may also land at the another spot
provided the landing spot was not already occupied at the time of
take-off and that the direct path between the take-off and landing
spot was not already occupied.
XIX. CLARIFYING STATEMENTS ON FOULS, VIOLATIONS AND PICKS
1. Cardinal Rule:
Whenever an infringement of the rules or a time out occur, play
is halted and the disc is put back into play at the point of the
last possession before play was stopped. (Note exceptions under
Turnovers (XII-4) and Catching Foul (VI-4).
2. Continuation Rule:
A. Disc In the Air
(1) If a foul, violation, or pick is called while the
disc is in the air, the play is always completed.
(2) If the team which called the foul, violation, or pick
gains possession as a result of that pass (e.g., an incomplete
pass following a traveling violation, or offensive foul), play
continues unhalted. In this situation, players should call
(3) If the pass is completed, but the defensive effort on
the pass was affected by the violation (e.g. picks), the pass
does not count and possession reverts back to the thrower.
B. Disc Not in the Air
(1) If a foul, violation, or pick is called while the
disc is not in the air, and a player attempts a pass before
play has stopped, and the pass is incomplete, it is a
(2) If a foul, violation, or pick is called while the
disc is not in the air, and a player attempts a pass before
play has stopped, and the pass is completed, the pass does not
count, and possession reverts back to the original thrower.
C. It is the responsibility of the player who made the call to
call out "Play on" to indicate that this rule has been
3. If there is ever a failure to come to an agreement over any call,
the disc reverts back to the thrower after a check.
4. If offsetting catching fouls are called by offensive and defensive
players on the same play, the disc reverts back to the thrower
after a check.
5. Any time the marker's count is interrupted by the call of a
foul, violation, pick, or time-out, the count is resumed as
Defensive Foul Uncontested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Defensive Foul Contested. . . . . . . . .same or 5 if over 5
Offensive Foul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . same
Travel or Pick. . . . . . . . . . . . . .same or 5 if over 5
Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Fast Count / Double Team
First Call. . . . . . . . . . . . subtract 2; no check
Second Call. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Time Out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . same
Contested Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
6. When play resumes after a time out, the stall count is continued
from where it was when time-out was called. The marker must
initiate the count by calling "Stalling" or "Counting".
7. If the marker counts too fast, the thrower may call "fast count."
A. The first "fast count" call is a warning. On the first
"fast count" call, the marker must subtract 2 from the stall
B. If "fast count" is called again within the same 10 seconds,
play stops and is resumed after a check with the count reset
to zero (0).
C. The continuation rule [XIX-2] applies to fast counts.
D. If the fast count occurs in such a manner that the thrower
does not have a reasonable opportunity to call "fast count"
before the utterance of the word "ten," the play is treated
the same as a contested stall [XIV-5(F)].
1. Before the game, the captains may decide to select up to six (6)
experienced non-players to act as Observers. In this role, their
job is to carefully watch the action of the game. They do not
actively call any fouls, violations, picks, or line calls.
2. When a dispute arises concerning a foul, violation, pick, line
call, or an interpretation of the rules which cannot be resolved
by the captains to make the call,
A. The observer with the best view of the play makes the call.
If the observers so choose, they may discuss the play among
themselves before rendering a decision.
B. By calling in the observers, the teams agree to abide by the
1. If a foul is committed and not called, the player who commits the
foul should inform the infracted player of the foul.
2. It is the responsibility of both teams to minimize the time taken
between each goal and the ensuing throw-off.
3. If the receiving team wishes to have an out-of-bounds throw-off
re-thrown, they should give the re-throw signal as soon as
4. It is a violation against the spirit of the game for a defensive
player to call for a pass from the thrower.
5. Should a dispute or confusion arise on the field, it should be
common practice to stop play, and resume play with a check when
the matter is resolved.
6. In the case where a novice player commits a violation out of
sincere ignorance of rules, it is common practice to stop play and
explain the violation.
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= End Ultimate Rules -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
[ The opinions expressed here are mine and mine alone. They do not ]
[ necessarily represent the views of my employer. ]
| "Human Beings are an interesting species. They are at their very best |
| when things are worst." --Starman |